The little medieval jewel of Tuscany. Thus you will meet the described Siena (Siena) - an Italian city in the region of Tuscany, the main administrative center of the eponymous province of Siena. The city is located in a hilly area south of Florence. Siena is famous for its art academy, marble processing and proclamation as the capital of Italian culture in 2015. Siena is also known for its first bank in the world, founded in 1472. It is interesting that this bank still works to this day.
Siena, among other things, is the city of bankers and Freemasons. For many people Sienna is like a captivating lady who only hints, but doesn't tell you things, she only hints, irritates her imagination and makes her expand to unsuspected heights. A republic within a republic that finds it difficult to allow anything to enter its territory. This is Siena.
But perhaps one of the most famous chapters in Siena's history is the centuries-old battle for supremacy between her and her eternal rival, Florence. The two cities compete in all possible spheres, and this competition crosses history and reaches our days. Even today, they compete in beauty, masterpieces of art and culture, in the field of wine and cuisine. The history of the city is dotted with many events from this "eternal derby", in which ultimately the winner is Florence. Unfortunately, its consequences led to the weakening of Siena and it became a secondary city in Tuscany.
Siena was founded by the Etruscans 400 BC. At that time the lands of today's city were inhabited by a tribe called the Sain. When Emperor Augustus ruled the city, it was turned into a Roman colony, which was named Siena Julia. There is a legend about the creation of Siena. According to it, the city was founded by two brothers - Axius and Senius, who came to these places to hide from his uncle Romulus. This is where the story of why the symbol of the city is a wolf nursing the creators of Rome begins. Unfortunately, in Roman times Siena failed to prosper, as it was quite far from important trade routes. A turning point in the development and history of the city came after the invasion of the Lombards in Siena, who decided to divert trade through far safer roads that passed right through the territory of today's city.
Undoubtedly the most important stage in the history of Siena is the XIII century - XV century, when it emerged as an independent republic. He managed to successfully develop banking, trade and weaving. Then the most important buildings were erected and the foundations of the Siena School of Arts were laid.
There is a lot to be said about Siena as a tourist destination. Thanks to the war for supremacy with Florence, many of its medieval buildings have been preserved to become today a unique architectural and historical heritage.
The city is small, but stands out with significant and incomparable buildings. Its most famous landmark is Piazza del Campo. This inverted shell-shaped medieval square has been nominated for one of the best in Europe. It is divided into nine marble stripes, which are said to mimic the folds in the cloak of the Virgin Mary.
A curious fact around the square is that it was built at the junction of the three hills, on which the city itself is located. Its construction was completed in the XIII century and since then has become the hot spot of the city. It is important to note that this is where the traditional Siena Festival, Palio, takes place, which is a biennial horse race.
On Piazza del Campo are the Town Hall, which houses an art museum, many churches and basilicas - Santa Maria dei from the XIII century, built in Gothic and Roman style, San Domenico, completed in 1265, San Francesco, built in 1255, Holy Spirit and San Martino.
The Torre del Mangia is another pearl in the crown of Siena. It is located on the square and was built to symbolize the prosperity of the city. It was built in 1348. Its height is the same as this of the Cathedral of Siena - 88 meters. The idea of equal height is to show that here the state and the church are equal.
Palazzo Pubblico is the very embodiment of Italian architecture. Today the building serves as a town hall and an art museum.
Siena Cathedral (Duomo di Siena) is another medieval masterpiece. It was built in 1263 by Andrea Pisano, who relies on white, greenish-black and red marble. In the duo itself, the used architectural styles can be distinguished - a wonderful palette of classical, Romanesque and Gothic styles. The creation of the statues of St. Peter and St. Paul is entrusted to the hands of the unsurpassed Michelangelo. In this cathedral is the Opera Museum, which houses works by famous artists from Siena.
Siena Botanical University Garden is also interesting to visit.